Chapter 1 References and Footnotes:
Ending The Tobacco Holocaust:
how Big Tobacco affects our health, pocketbook and political freedom, and what we can do about it.
Chapter 1: It's Not About Non-smokers Versus Smokers -- Smoking Affects Everyone.
1 As this book was going to press, a new edition was being published by the American Cancer Society. It is available for online viewing at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/AA/content/AA_2_5_9x_Tobacco_Atlas.asp?, and can be ordered from the American Cancer Society at:
2 Borio, G., The Tobacco Timeline. http://www.tobacco.org/resources/history/Tobacco_History20-1.html
3 This statistic came from Dr. Scott Sherman, M.D., M.P.H., former Smoking Cessation Coordinator, VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, and Kim Hamlett-Berry, Ph.D., Director, Public Health National Prevention Program, Public Health Strategic Health Care Group (13B), Dept. of Veterans Affairs. They commented via e-mail that this figure might be skewed upward because a high percentage of the sick, poor veterans use the VA services compared with the population overall. They noted that it’s not known what percent of U.S. veterans are ill from the effects of cigarettes, and what percent actually die from smoking.
4 Centers for Disease Control, CDC Youth and Tobacco Use Current Estimates. December 2003.
5 “Cigarette Use Among High School Students-United States,” MMWR. 1991–2003. June 18, 2004/53(23) 499–502.
7 Massie, Michelle K., “Teen Smoking falls to lowest rate in years.” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. June 18, 2004.
9 “Tobacco Use, Access, and Exposure to Tobacco in Media Among Middle and High School Students—United States, 2004,” MMWR, April 1, 2005 / Vol. 54 / No. 12.
10 “2001 Monitoring The Future Survey Released: Smoking Among Teenagers Decreases Sharply and Increase in Ecstasy Use Slows.” HHS News, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Press Release Wednesday, Dec. 19, 2001. http://www.nida.nih.gov/MedAdv/01/NR12-19.html.
11 “Teen Drug Abuse Declines Across Wide Front,” HHS News, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Press Release, Friday, Dec. 19, 2003. http://www.nida.nih.gov/Newsroom/03/NR12-19.html.
12 “Teen smoking continues to decline in 2003, but declines are slowing,” University of Michigan, Information Service. http://www.nida.nih.gov/Newsroom/03/2003MTFTobacco.pdf.
13 (1) For the 2003 MTF, more than 48,500 students in 392 schools nationwide were surveyed about lifetime, annual, thirty-day, and daily use of drugs, alcohol, and cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. The latest data are online at www.drugabuse.gov (Monitoring The Future) as given in InfoFacts, NIDA, NIH, U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services. http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/HSYouthtrends.html.
National Institute of Drug Abuse. Monitoring The Future. National Results of Adolescent Drug Use. Overview of Key Findings 2004. NIH Publication No. 05-5726, April 2005.
16 Monitoring the Future press release, Dec. 19, 2005. http://www.monitoringthefuture.org.
17 Stobbe, M., Survey: Teen smoking in U.S. levels off Associated Press news release, June 10, 2006. Available at http://www.tobacco.org/scripts/jump.php?article_id=225682&url=http://www.examiner.com/a-131793~Survey__Teen_Smoking_in_U_S__Levels_Off.html.
22 Eaton, Danice K., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Harris, W., Lowry, R., McManus, T., Chyen, D., Shanklin, S., Lim, C., Grumbaum, J., and Wechsler, H., Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance — United States, 2005 MMWR June 9, 2006 / 55(SS05);1–108. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505a1.htm.
24 Author’s communication with Dr. Ernest Noble, March 23, 2006.
25 “CDC – Smoking declining but not fast enough,” United Press International. Nov. 10, 2004.
26 Ross, Gilbert, M.D., “Big Tobacco’s #1 Lie is that ‘everyone knows.’” American Council on Science and Health Editorial, Aug. 2, 2001. http://www.acsh.org/news/newsID.276/news_detail.asp.
27 Jan. 11, 2004 Marks the Fortieth Anniversary of the Inaugural Surgeon General’s Report on Smoking and Health, Statement from the CDC Director citing Cigarettes Cost U.S. Additional $7 Per Pack Sold in Medical and Other Costs, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002; 51:300-302. (For more information: MMWR — Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs — United States, 1995–1999).
28 Sloan, F. A., Ostermann, J., Conover, C., Taylor, D. H. Jr., and Picone, G., The Price of Smoking. (MIT Press. Boston, MA. 2004).
29 “Measuring Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Levels of Harmful Components of Tobacco Products,” CDC Division of Laboratory Sciences. 2004.
30 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Us. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006.
32 “Preliminary Data: Exposure of Persons Aged greater than Four Years to Tobacco Smoke,” United States, 1988–1991. Jan. 22, 1993/42(02);37-39. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00018854.htm.
33 “National Report on Human Exposure To Environmental Chemicals,” Second National Report. March 2003. Available at: http://www.checnet.org/healthehouse/education/articles-detail.asp?Main_ID=537.
34 “1986 Surgeon General Report: The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking,” pp. 7–8. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1986/index.htm.
35 This photo/image of the cowboy’s horse dying from secondhand smoke was kindly provided by Dr. Judith MacKay, director of the Asian Consultancy on Tobacco Control.
36 “On ETS, Administration Stresses Education, Not Action (04/05-1)” Hearing of the senate environment and public works committee subject: tobacco smoke and the environment chaired by Senator John Chafee (R-RI) 406 Dirksen Senate Office Building Washington, D.C. 1:30 p.m. (April 1, 1998) Testimony of Carol Browner, administrator of the EPA. The listed figures from this source differ somewhat from the numbers listed in the 2006 Surgeon General Report, especially regarding the number of middle ear related illnesses.
37 Aligne, C. A. and Stoddard, J. J., “Tobacco and children. An economic evaluation of the medical effects of parental smoking.” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 1997; 151(7):648–653.
39 “Lymphoma risk in cats MORE THAN DOUBLES if owners are smokers,” American Veterinary Medical Association.
40 Bertone, E. R., Snyder, L. A., Moore, A. S., Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of malignant lymphoma in cats. American Journal of Epidemiology,. 2002, 156(3): 268–73.
41 Environmental factors related to cancer in pets. http://www.avma.org/convention/news/monday11.asp.
American Veterinary Medical Association.
42 As this book was going to press, a new edition was being published by the American Cancer Society. It is available for online viewing at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/AA/content/AA_2_5_9x_Tobacco_Atlas.asp?, and can be ordered from the American Cancer Society at:
43 Talwar, Namrita, “Taking the World Up in Smoke: A Tobacco Peril/” UN Chronicle, Vol. XLI, Number 2, 2004. http://www0.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2004/issue2/0204p67.asp#.
44 Peto, R., and Lopez, A. D., “Future worldwide health effects of current smoking patterns.” Koop, C. D., Pearson, C., Schwarz, M. R., eds. Critical issues in global health. (New York, NY: Jossey-Bass; 2001).
45 Guindon, G. E., and Boisclair, D., “Past, current and future trends in tobacco use.” Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2003 (HNP Discussion Paper No. 6, Economics of Tobacco Control Paper No. 6). And Jong-wook, L. World Health Organization Director General’s speech to 12th World Congress on Tobacco and Health, presented on Aug. 4, 2003. Available at: Top of Form
http://www.who.int/dg/lee/speeches/2003/helsinki/en/. Availability verified June 15, 2005.
46 “Projections of tobacco production, consumption and trade to the year 2010,” published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
47 “Higher World Tobacco Use Expected by 2010,” FAO, Jan. 8, 2004, press release about the report “Projections of tobacco production, consumption and trade to the year 2010.”
48 A more recent 2006 estimate is that China has over 350 million smokers. The China National Tobacco Corporation has 33.7% of the global market share. Ref.: MacKay, J., Eriksen, M. and Shafey , O., The Tobacco Atlas, 2nd Edition, published by American Cancer Society, 2006, Atlanta, GA, p. 52.