Ending The Tobacco Holocaust Chapter 2 References and Footnotes:
Ending The Tobacco Holocaust:
how Big Tobacco affects our health, pocketbook and political freedom, and what we can do about it.
Chapter 2: What's Been Done, What Hasn't Been Done, And Why It's in Your Interest to Take Simple, Effortless Actions to Create Change.
1 Ross, Gilbert, M.D., “Big Tobacco’s #1 Lie is that ‘everyone knows.’” American Council on Science and Health Editorial, Aug. 2, 2001. http://www.acsh.org/news/newsID.276/news_detail.asp.
2 CDC, National Center For Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Tobacco Information and Prevention Source (TIPS). http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/issue.htm.
3 “Tobacco Firms Question Settlement Payments.” Associated Press Release. May 13, 2005.
4 Zuckerbrod, N., “States Sue Tobacco Firms Over Payments.” Associated Press. April 19, 2006.
5 U.S. GAO report number GAO-05-312, “Tobacco Settlement: States’ Allocations of Fiscal Year 2004 and Expected Fiscal Year 2005 Payments,” March 22, 2005 (Note: GAO didn’t publish 2005/expected 2006 data).
6 “A Broken Promise to Our Children: The 1998 State Tobacco Settlement Five Years Later,” Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, and American Lung Association. Nov. 12, 2003.
7 CNN.com., “Why Tobacco Won’t Quit” - July 2, 2001 (Bates Number: 2085244765/4768).
8 Altria Group, Inc. 2004 Annual Report, available at http://www.altria.com/AnnualReport/ar2004/2004ar_05_0100.aspx.
11 British American Annual Report 2004, available at http://www.bat.com.
12 Loews 2004 annual report, available at: http://media.corporate-ir.net/media_files/IROL/10/102789/reports/2004ar.pdf.
3 Healton, C., Farrelly, M. C., Wetzenkamp, D., Lindsey, D., and Haviland, M. L., Youth smoking prevention and tobacco industry revenue. Tobacco Control, 2006; 15:103–106
14 “NGOs Call For Decisive Action to Ensure Strong Implementation of Global Tobacco Treaty: INFACT and Network for Accountability of Tobacco Transnationals Urge Countries to Safeguard Framework Convention on Tobacco Control,” Press Release of INFACT, June 21, 2004. http://www.infact.org/062104iwg.html.
15 British American Annual Report 2004, available at http://www.bat.com.
16Talwar, Namrita. “Taking the World Up in Smoke: A Tobacco Peril,” UN Chronicle, Volume XLI, Number 2, 2004. http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2004/issue2/0204p67.asp.
17 “Projections of tobacco production, consumption and trade to the year 2010,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
18 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fight-or-flight_response: The fight-or-flight response, also called the “acute stress response,” was first described by Walter Cannon in 1929. The theory states that animals react to threats with a general discharge of the sympathetic nervous system. The response was later recognized as the first stage of a general adaptation syndrome that regulates stress responses among vertebrates and other organisms. In layman’s terms, an animal has two options when faced with danger. They can either face the threat (“fight”), or they can avoid the threat (“flight”). The onset of a stress response is associated with specific physiological actions in the sympathetic nervous system, both directly and indirectly through the release of epinephrine and to a lesser extent norepinephrine from the medulla of the adrenal glands. The release is triggered by acetylcholine released from preganglionic sympathetic nerves. These catecholamine hormones facilitate immediate physical reactions by triggering increases in heart rate and breathing, constricting blood vessels in many parts of the body—but not in muscles (vasodilation), brain, lungs and heart (increasing blood supply to organs involved in the fight)—and tightening muscles. An abundance of catecholamines at neuroreceptor sites facilitates reliance on spontaneous or intuitive behaviors often related to combat or escape.
Normally, when a person is in a serene, unstimulated state, the “firing” of neurons in the locus ceruleus is minimal. A novel stimulus (which could include a perception of danger or an environmental stressor signal such as elevated sound levels or over-illumination), once perceived, is relayed from the sensory cortex of the brain through the thalamus to the brain stem. That route of signaling increases the rate of noradrenergic activity in the locus ceruleus, and the person becomes alert and attentive to the environment.
If a stimulus is perceived as a threat, a more intense and prolonged discharge of the locus ceruleus activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system (Thase & Howland, 1995). The activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to the release of norepinephrine from nerve endings acting on the heart, blood vessels, respiratory centers, and other sites. The ensuing physiological changes constitute a major part of the acute stress response. The other major player in the acute stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.
19 Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report for 2003.
20 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habituation: Habituation is an example of nonassociative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. It is another form of integration. An animal first responds to a sensory stimulus, but if it is neither rewarding nor harmful the animal learns to suppress its response through repeated encounters. One example of this can be seen in small song birds - if a stuffed owl (or similar predator) is introduced into the cage, the birds react to it as though it were a real predator, but soon realize that it is not and so become habituated to it. If another stuffed owl is introduced (or the same one removed and re-introduced), the birds react to it as though it were a predator, showing that it is only a very specific stimulus that is being ignored (namely, one particular unmoving owl in one place). This learned suppression of response is habituation.
21“Annual Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs - United States. 1995–1999.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, April 12, 2002/Vol.51/No.14. and http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/factsheets/factsheet6.html and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Natioonal Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2006/index.htm. Additional highlight sheets are also available at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco.
22 “A Broken Promise to Our Children: The 1998 State Tobacco Settlement Five Years Later.” Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, American Heart Association, American Cancer Society, and American Lung Association. Nov. 12, 2003.
23 U.S. Surgeon General estimate of annual cost to nation from 1995–99 data adjusted for health care and regular inflation, plus ETS cost to nation, divided by 2004 number of U.S. tax-paying households.
25 A simple tip for young people to do much better than the average 11% yearly return. But first the disclaimer: caveat emptor, future results may be different than past performance, do your own due diligence, I assume no responsibility for your investments in any way, you are responsible for all of your investments and investment results, unforeseen things can happen. Now on to the tip. Historically the top-rated Value Line stocks have performed much better than the general market. There have been a few years of aberration when that hasn’t been the case, but in general it has been. So simply select a diversified portfolio of Value Line top-rated stocks yearly (or if you are very stock minded, quarterly), and keep moving into top-rated stocks each year (The Value Line service is available for free at libraries). Over time you may do much better than the 11% average. (You can also put your money into Value Line’s Mutual Fund if you don’t care to look at stocks. Please note that I have no financial connection with Value Line) Also, if the strategy doesn’t work for you, find a better strategy).
26 An approximation for the economic burden of smoking to the average taxpayer in the United States was calculated with the following assumption: 1999 direct medical care cost of 75.5 billion times the health insurance premium inflation rates from 2000 through 2005 of 1.082* 1.109*1.129*1.139*1.112*1.092 (as listed in Employer Health Benefits 2005 Annual survey (#7315), published by Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation and Health Research and Educational Trust, September 2005.) = $ 141.47 billion, plus the 1999 lost productivity cost due to smoking of $81.9 billion (times a 3% overall average inflation rate) 1.03*1.03*1.03*1.03*1.03*1.03 = $97.79 billion, plus estimated cost to economy from ETS of $10 billion per year = $249.3 billion total burden to country; divided by number of tax payers paying tax in 2004 =
131,113,969 (returns filed) – 42,545,501 (returns with $0. tax liability) = 88,568,468 taxpayers who paid tax in 2004 (source: Hodge S. Number of Americans Outside the Income Tax System Continues to Grow. http://www.taxfoundation.org/research/show/542.html June 9, 2005.)
Thus, the burden form smoking is approximately $ 2814.77 per year per tax return filed that had actual tax liability for the year in the U.S. in 2005 per year.
The burden from smoking equals approximately $ 1901.4 ($249.3 billion/131.115 million returns filed) for every U.S. tax return filed, whether or not there was any tax liability for the year.
The burden from smoking is approximately $ 1597. per year per taxpayer (whether taxes were paid or not) for the year in the U.S. in 2005 per year. This figure isn't as accurate as the $1901.4 figure for each return filed. However, it is clearer for the reader, and so was used in the table, and elsewhere in the book.
The burden from smoking is about $835 per year per person living in U.S. ($249.3 billion/298,588,596 (U.S. population on 4/24/06)).