Chapter 3 References and Footnotes:
Ending The Tobacco Holocaust: how Big Tobacco affects our health, pocketbook and political freedom, and what we can do about it.
Chapter 3: Targeting Our Achilles Heel --
The Manipulative Marketers of Big Tobacco.
1 History Net - The History of Tobacco Part III (1900-1950).Available at:
=http://www.historian.org/bysubject/tobacco3.htm Accessed July 12, 2005.
2 Tobacco Timeline – Chapter 6: Rise of the Cigarette. 1900–1950: Growing Pains. Available at: http://www.tobacco.org/resources/history/Tobacco_History20-1.html. Accessed July 12, 2005.
3 “Tobacco … A Long History.” Available at: http://www.metromkt.net/viable/health27.shtml. Accessed July 12, 2005.
4 Tobacco Timeline. Available at: http://academic.udayton.edu/health/syllabi/tobacco/history2.htm#1900-1950. Accessed July 12, 2005.
5 “Emergence of Advertising in America: 1850–1920.” Available at: http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/eaa/timeline.html. Accessed July 12, 2005.
6 In personal communication with Dr. Sherman, I learned that this figure may be skewed upward from the actual rate of smoking by veterans. That’s because veterans in lower economic status and with more illness use the VA medical system more extensively than those in a higher economic status.
7 Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report For 2003. Issued in 2005.
8 Personal communication with Stanton Glantz, Nov. 15, 2005, and Tye, J. B., Warner, K. E., Glantz, S. A. “Tobacco advertising and consumption: evidence of a causal relationship.” Journal of Public Health Policy. Winter 1987;8(4):492–508.
9 Federal Trade Commission Cigarette Report For 2003. Issued in 2005.
10 http://www.philipmorrisusa.com/en/health_issues/addiction.asp and http://www.philipmorrisusa.com/en/health_issues/cigarette_smoking_and_disease.asp. Access verified Dec. 4, 2005.
11 “Top Secret Operation Rainmaker.” March 20, 1990. Bates No. 2048302227-2048302230. Available at: http://www.tobaccodocuments.org/usc_tim/1251.html. Accessed July 12, 2005.
13 Youth Tobacco Use and Exposure is a Global Problem. Aug. 28, 2002. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/Global/GYTS/speeches_pr/youth_tobaccoPR.htm. Accessed July 12, 2005.
14 “Tobacco Co. Accused Over Ads.” Associated Press. Jan. 12, 2000. Available at: http://www.no-smoking.org/jan00/01-13-00-1.html. Accessed July 12, 2005.
15 King, C. and Siegel, M., “Brand-specific cigarette advertising in magazines in relation to youth and young adult readership, 1986–1994.” Nicotine & Tobacco Research. December 1999;1(4):331–40.
16 “Two New Studies Confirm Tobacco Industry Has Increased Advertising Aimed at Children Since State Settlement: Health Groups Urge Attorneys General to Investigate Settlement Violation and Call on Congress to Grant FDA Authority Over Tobacco.” May 17, 2000. Available at: http://tobaccofreekids.org/Script/DisplayPressRelease.php3?Display=264. Accessed July 12, 2005.
17 “Exposure to Pro-Tobacco Advertising and Marketing by America’s Youth Continues Despite Sweeping Restrictions Implemented Five Years Ago: Teens are Routinely Subject to Pro-Tobacco Messages in Television and Movies, on the Internet and at Concerts, Clubs.” December 11, 2003. Available at: http://www.americanlegacy.org/americanlegacy/skins/alf/display.aspx?CategoryID=160386b2-d43a-4f67-890a-98e135a8ee6c&ObjectID=797b563d-e51e-4311-af64-fb7d14b36cde&Action=display_user_object&Mode=user&ModuleID=ad3a024a-b2d6-4593-874f-9b66136bc614. Accessed July 12, 2005.
18 “Tobacco Use, Access, and Exposure to Tobacco in Media Among Middle and High School Students - United States, 2004.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. April 1, 2005;54(12):297–301. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5412a1.htm. Accessed July 12, 2005.
21 Testimony alluding to a statement by an RJR tobacco executive, as told by Dave Goerlitz, former Winston Cigarette model, subcommittee on Transportation & Health Hearings HR Bill # 1250/serial # 101-85, p. 39, and http://www.montclair.edu/wellness/WED/WEDpdf/Rebel_U_04.pdf#search=’Dave%20Goerlitz%20%20death’.
22 Kilbourne, Jean. “Targets of Cigarette Advertising.” Available at: http://www.health20-20.org/kilbourne.htm. Accessed July 12, 2005.
23 “Psychosocial Influences on Cigarette Smoking.” Available at: http://profiles.nlm.nih.gov/NN/B/C/N/W/_/nnbcnw.pdf. Accessed July 12, 2005.
24 “Tobacco Explained: Marketing to Children.” Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld3.html. Accessed on July 12, 2005.
25 Winston Ad claiming “No Compromise.” Life Magazine. January 1980:18.
26 Kilbourne, Jean. “Targets of Cigarette Advertising.” Available at: http://www.health20-20.org/kilbourne.htm. Accessed July 12, 2005.
27 “Body Image and Advertising.” Available at: http://www.mediascope.org/pubs/ibriefs/bia.htm. Accessed July 12, 2005.
28 “Big Tobacco and Women.” Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld8.html. Accessed July 12, 2005.
29 On reviewing references, it is unclear whether this reference is valid or not. Until, we can determine the source of this reference, and whether it is true or not, please assume the sentence in the book associated with this reference number is an incorrect statement. We have so far not been able to contact the researcher who provided this reference, and are attempting to determine if it is a correct statement or not.
30 “Gender and Tobacco: Men and Boys.” Available at: http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/resources/educational/handouts/tobacco_advertising/men_and_boys.cfm. Accessed July 12, 2005.
31 Koenderman, Tony, “Tobacco Corporations Circumvent Advertising Laws: Tobacco Co. Under Fire In South Africa Over ‘Smoking Parties’.” International Daily. Aug. 28, 2001.
32 Smalley, Suzanne, “Got Smokes? Big Tobacco’s New Marketing Strategy Draws Fire.” Newsweek Web Exclusive. Aug. 17, 2001. Available at: http://www.no-smoking.org/august01/08-20-01-1.html. Accessed July 12, 2005.
33 “Tobacco Use.” Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/tobacco/index.htm. Accessed July 12, 2005.
34 Letter dated Feb. 24, 1989 on Philip Morris letterhead written by John Kochevar on behalf of Hamish Maxwell to The Honorable Thomas A. Luken in response to a letter received by PM from Luken dated Jan. 25, 1989. Stamped 87703545-87703547.
35 Expanded Formal Petition, Complaint and Request for a Formal Criminal Investigation of Hidden Cigarette Ads In Movies Intended for Theaters and Therefore in Violation of 15 U.S.C. 1333 and 15 U.S.C. 1335. Filed by Action on Smoking and Health (ASH) on Tuesday, May 12, 1998 at the Department of Justice, Washington, D.C.
36 “Big Tobacco’s Smokescreen in Hollywood.” Available at: http://smokefreemovies.ucsf.edu/problem/smokescreen.html. Accessed on July 13, 2005.
37 Kelly Weedon Shute Advertising. “Philip Morris cigarette marketing—a new perspective.” November 1989. Bates No. 2501057693-7719. Available at: http://www.pmdocs.com/getimg.asp?pgno=0&start=0&if=avpidx&bool=2501057693-7719&docid=2501057693/7719&docnum=1&summary=0&sel1=. Accessed July 13, 2005.
39 Devany, F. Paper confirming contact between Devany and Fred Karger of the Dolphin Group Public Relations Firm regarding Karger’s clients, Philip Morris and R. J. Reynolds. June 23, 1989. Bates No. 515687482-7482. Available at: http://www.rjrtdocs.com. Accessed July 13, 2005.
40 Devaney, F., Product Placement History. Rogers & Cowan. April 12, 1990. Bates No. 507341906-1906. Available at: http://www.rjrtdocs.com. Accessed July 13, 2005.
41 Mekemson, C., and Glantz, S. A., “How the Tobacco Industry Built Its Relationship With Hollywood.” Tobacco Control. 2002;11(1):181–191.
42 Milicia, Joe, “Eszterhas Fights Smoking in Films.” Associated Press News Release. Aug 9, 2002. Also: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/730759/posts. Accessed July 13, 2005.
44 Esterhaz, J., Hicks, D., Bronson, D., “Smoking: Join Joe to Quit Now—Joe Eszterhas” Nov. 20, 2003. Interview. Available at: http://my.webmd.com/content/article/77/95433.htm.
47 The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control contains tobacco advertising ban policies. While those are limited by the constitution or constitutional principles of each participating country, I would suggest that it may actually be to the benefit of tobacco companies to stop print advertising of cigarettes voluntarily to avoid future legal liability. Their legal burden around the world is likely to increase in the future as people in other countries become more aware of the health dangers. However, currently most tobacco executives are still more motivated to grab market share through advertising. (Obviously, from a public health perspective, it would be best if there were a total elimination on all forms of advertising by the tobacco companies.)Policies of “Corporate Social Responsibility” are being adopted by some of the large tobacco companies to improve their image in society, and to maintain and increase their profits (see Chapter 12). I conjecture that it might actually be beneficial for some of those tobacco companies, as part of a smart social image enhancing strategy, to voluntarily adopt at least a total print tobacco advertising in the future.
48 Glantz, S. A., “Smoking in movies: a major problem and a real solution.” Lancet. July 26, 2003;362(9380):258–9., and http://www.smokefree.ucsf.edu, and Charlesworth, A. and Glantz, S. A. “Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.” Pediatrics. December 2005;116(6):1516–28
50 http://www.sec.gov/edgar/searchedgar/webusers.htm, plus individual corporate annual reports and corporate websites.
52 “Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War On Journalism.” Documentary movie directed by Robert Greenwald. 2004.
53 Villarosa, L., “Caution: Tobacco Ads May Be Hazardous to Your Editorial Freedom.” Harvard Public Health Review, 1991 (Spring) and http://archives.cjr.org/year/94/1/cigarette.asp.
54 “The Perspective of PM International on Smoking and Health” (speech). Philip Morris; March 27, 1985. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tus98e00. Accessibility verified: August 8, 2005. Bates No. 2023268351/8364.
56 Letter, contract, agreement between Philip Morris and Murdoch magazines from the following sources: Philip Morris; April 26, 1991. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kut04c00. Accessed Aug. 8, 2005. Accessibility verified Aug. 8, 2005. Bates No. 2065034055/4061.
57 Dalton, M. A., Sargent, J. D., Beach, M. L., Titus-Ernstoff, L., Gibson, J. J., Ahrens, M. B., Tickle, J. J., Heatherton, T. F., “Effect of viewing smoking in movies on adolescent smoking initiation: a cohort study.” Lancet,.July 26, 2003;362(9380):281–5.
Sargent, J. D., Dalton, M. A., Beach, M. L., Mott, L. A., Tickle, J. J., Ahrens, M. B., Heatherton, T. F.“Viewing tobacco use in movies: does it shape attitudes that mediate adolescent smoking?” American Journal of Preventive Medicine. April 2002;22(3):137–45.
Sargent, J. D., Beach, M. L., Dalton, M. A., Mott, L. A., Tickle, J. J., Ahrens, M. B., Heatherton, T. F.“Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: cross sectional study.” BMJ. Dec. 15, 2001;323(7326):1394-7.
Tickle, J. J., Sargent, J. D., Dalton, M. A., Beach, M. L., Heatherton, T. F. “Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary movies, and its association with adolescent smoking.” Tobacco Control. March 2001;10(1):16–22.
Distefan ,J. M., Gilpin, E. A., Sargent, J. D., Pierce, J. P., “Do movie stars encourage adolescents to start smoking? Evidence from California.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine. January 1999;28(1):1–11.
59 Glantz, S. A. “Smoking in movies: a major problem and a real solution.” Lancet. July 26, 2003; 362(9380):258–9 and Charlesworth A, Glantz SA. “Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.” Pediatrics. December 2005;116(6):1516–28. and http://www.smokefreemovies.ucsf.edu/pdf/glickman.pdf
60 Sargent, J.D., Beach ML, Adachi-Mejia AM, Gibson JJ, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Carusi CP, Swain SD, Heatherton TF, Dalton MA. “Exposure to movie smoking: its relation to smoking initiation among US adolescents.” Pediatrics. 2005 Nov;116(5):1183–91
61 Glantz, S.A.and Kacirk, K. McCulloch C. “Back to the future: smoking in movies in 2002 compared with 1950 levels.” American Journal of Public Health, 2004; 94(2): 261–3.
68 Glantz, S. and Polansky, Jonathon, “First-Run Smoking Presentations in U.S. Movies 1999–2000.” University of California-San Francisco Center for Tobacco Control Research and Education, March 2004. Available at: http://repositories.cdlib.org/ctcre/tcpmus/Movies2004/.
69 Shalala, D., Remarks at International Policy Conference on Children & Tobacco. Held in Washington D.C., on March 18, 1999. Available at: http://www.hhs.gov/news/speeches/990318.html.
71 http://www.smokefreemovies.ucsf.edu/problem/studio_surveys.html. Note: The methodology whereby Dr. Glantz’s research team calculated each studio’s share of kids delivered to the tobacco industry is available at: http://www.smokefreemovies.ucsf.edu/problem/new_smokers.html
72 Philip Morris sold 187.1 billion units (cigarettes) in 2004, equivalent to 9.355 billion packs of twenty cigarettes. Dividing that by the company’s stated profit of $4.405 billion in 2004, then its profit for each pack of cigarette is calculated to be equal to $0.4708119 per pack of cigarettes. Philip Morris International sold 761.4 billion units (cigarettes) in 2004, equivalent to 38.070 billion packs of twenty cigarettes. Dividing that by their stated profit of $6.566 billion in 2004, then its profit for each pack of cigarettes is calculated to be equal to $0.17247176. The figures used are from the 2004 Altria Annual Report. Altria is the new name for Philip Morris and owns 100% of Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International.