Ending The Tobacco Holocaust Chapter 4 References an Footnotes:

Ending The Tobacco Holocaust: how Big Tobacco affects our health, pocketbook and political freedom, and what we can do about it.

Chapter 4: Masters of Deceit.

1 "A Look Inside the Beast," Available at: http://www.no-smoking.org/nov99/11-29-99-2.html. Accessed July 17, 2005.

2 How is it possible for the CEO of a tobacco company, whose tobacco products kill over half of its users in the long term when they are used as intended, to make such as statement? In psychology there is a theory called cognitive dissonance theory, which states that contradicting cognitions serve as a driving force that compels the mind to acquire or invent new thoughts or beliefs, or to modify existing beliefs, so as to reduce the amount of dissonance (conflict) between cognitions. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance “The theory of cognitive dissonance was first proposed by the psychologist Leon Festinger in 1956 psychologist after observing the counterintuitive belief persistence of members of a UFO doomsday cult and their increased proselytization after the leader's prophecy failed. The failed message of earth's destruction, sent by aliens to a suburban housewife in 1956, became a disconfirmed expectancy that increased dissonance between cognitions, thereby causing most members of the impromptu cult to lessen the dissonance by accepting a new prophecy; that the aliens had instead spared the planet for their sake.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance In other words, attitude change can occur based on the theory that we are motivated to adjust our attitudes to relieve “cognitive dissonance” [ref: Reber and Reber (2001), The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology], which is “an emotional state set up when two simultaneously held attitudes or cognitions are inconsistent or when there is a conflict between belief and overt behavior. The resolution of the conflict is assumed to serve as a basis for attitude change, in that belief patterns are generally modified so as to be consistent with behavior.”: http://cognitive-dissonance.behaviouralfinance.net/
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance “The theory of cognitive dissonance was first proposed by the psychologist Leon Festinger in 1956 after observing the counterintuitive belief persistence of members of a UFO doomsday cult and their increased proselytization after the leader's prophecy failed. The failed message of earth's destruction, sent by aliens to a suburban housewife in 1956, became a disconfirmed expectancy that increased dissonance between cognitions, thereby causing most members of the impromptu cult to lessen the dissonance by accepting a new prophecy; that the aliens had instead spared the planet for their sake.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_dissonance Reber and Reber (2001), The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, which is “an emotional state set up when two simultaneously held attitudes or cognitions are inconsistent or when there is a conflict between belief and overt behavior. The resolution of the conflict is assumed to serve as a basis for attitude change, in that belief patterns are generally modified so as to be consistent with behavior." http://cognitive-dissonance.behaviouralfinance.net/.

3 Dorfman, Lori, “Smoke & Mirrors. Philip Morris Puts Up Good Citizen Smokescreen.” Available at: http://www.metroactive.com/papers/sonoma/12.28.00/tobacco-0052.html. Accessed July 17, 2005.

4 Koop, C. E., “Tobacco: the public health disaster of the twentieth century.” In Tobacco: science policy and public health. Edited by Boyle, P., Gray, N., Henninglield, J., Seffrin, J., Zatonski, W. 2004. Oxford University Press. Oxford, Great Britain. p xii.

5 Byrne, John A., “Philip Morris: Inside America's Most Reviled Company (Part 1).” Business Week. Nov. 29, 1999.

6 “Smoking At Philip Morris,” Available at: http://gershkuntzman.homestead.com/files/smoking_at_philip_morris_text.txt. Accessed July 17, 2005.

7 Mulvihill, Keith, “Tobacco Influence on Drug Company Advertising of Smoking Cessation Products.” Reuters Health. New York. Aug. 15, 2002. Available at: http://www.cancerpage.com/news/article.asp?id=4749. Accessed July 17, 2005. AndShamasunder, B., Bero, L. Financial ties and conflicts of interest between pharmaceutical and tobacco companies. JAMA. Aug. 14, 2002;288(6):738–44.

8 “Tobacco Company Influenced Nicotine Gum, Patch Ads,” Reuters Health. New York. Aug. 14, 2002. Available at: http://w156.z066088179.was-dc.dsl.cnc.net/news/Aug/Articles_Aug1402a.htm. Accessed July 17, 2005.

9 “Tobacco Firms Used Financial Ties To Weaken Market for Antismoking Product,” Sept. 11, 2002. Available at: http://www.obgyn.net/newsheadlines/headline_medical_news-Nicotine_Addiction-20020911-7.asp. Accessed July 17, 2005.

10 “Potera, C., Targacept pursues brain nicotine receptors.” Genetic Engineering News, 2005; 25(11):52–53.

11 Koop, C. E., Tobacco: the public health disaster of the twentieth century. In Tobacco: science policy and public health. Edited by Boyle, P., Gray, N., Henninglield, J., Seffrin, J., Zatonski, W. 2004. Oxford University Press. Oxford, Great Britain. p vii.

12 Industry Executives Knew Nicotine Addictive. Reuters Health. Oct. 6, 1998. Available at: http://www.drrecommend.com/asp/dr_l.asp?b=Health/Addictions/Substance_Abuse/Tobacco/Industry&u=http%3a%2f%2fpersonalmd.com%2fnews%2fa1998100608.shtml&t=lst/Health/Addictions/Substance_Abuse/Tobacco/Industry. Accessed July 17, 2005.

13 State of Minnesota County of Ramsey District Court Civil Court File No. C1-94-8565, the State of Minnesota, by Humbert H. Humphrey, III, Its Attorney General, and Blue Cross Blue Shield of Minnesota, Plaintiffs, v. Philip Morris Incorporated, R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Corporation, B.A.T. Industries, P. L. C., Lorillard Tobacco Company, the American Tobacco Company, Liggett Group, Inc., the Council for Tobacco Research – U.S.A., Inc., and the Tobacco Institute, Inc., Defendants. Available at: http://tobaccodocuments.org/ctr/CTRMN043249-3258.html. Accessed July 18, 2005.

14 Hill & Knowlton, Forwarding Memorandum. 1953. Available at: http://tobaccodocuments.org/ctr/CTRMN043104-3112.html. Accessed July 18, 2005.

15 “100 Years Ago Tomatoes Were ‘Poison,’” Company/Source: Philip MorrisDocument Date: 19690600 http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/2010008816.pdf.

16 Memorandum from Claude Teague, Assistant Director of Research for R. J. Reynolds in 1973 to presumed corporate recipient, R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. 1972. Available at: http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/501877121-7129.html. Accessed July 18, 2005.

17 Dunn, W. L., Motives and incentives in cigarette smoking [report]. R. J. Reynolds. 1972. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/txy74e00. Accessed Sept. 23, 2001. Accessibility verified Sept. 23, 2005. Bates No. 2024273959/3975.

18 Memorandum from William Dunn, Scientific Researcher at Philip Morris to Helmut Wakeham, R. R., Ph.D. Vice President and Director of Research & Development, Philip Morris. 1969. Available at: http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/1003289921-9922.html. Accessed July 18, 2005.

19 “Industry Executives Knew Nicotine Addictive,” Reuters Health. Oct. 6, 1998. Available at: http://www.drrecommend.com/asp/dr_l.asp?b=Health/Addictions/Substance_Abuse/Tobacco/Industry&u=http%3a%2f%2fpersonalmd.com%2fnews%2fa1998100608.shtml&t=lst/Health/Addictions/Substance_Abuse/Tobacco/Industry. Accessed July 17, 2005.

20 Letter to The Honorable Robert Pitofsky, Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission from the Alliance for Lung Cancer Advocacy, Support and Education, the American College of Cardiology, the American College of Chest Physicians, the American College of Preventive Medicine, the American Heart Association, the American Lung Association, the American Medical Association, the American Psychological Association, the American Public Health Association, the American School Health Association, the American Society of Addiction Medicine, Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Community, Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA), the Federation of Behavioral, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, the Latino Council for Alcohol and Tobacco, the National Association of County and City Health Officials, the National Association of Local Boards of Health, the National Center for Policy Research for Women and Families, Oral Health America and Partnership for Prevention. March 12, 2001. Available at: http://www.acpm.org/pol_comp2001-018(H).htm. Accessed July 18, 2005.

21 “Industry Executives Knew Nicotine Addictive,” Reuters Health. Oct. 6, 1998. Available at: http://www.drrecommend.com/asp/dr_l.asp?b=Health/Addictions/Substance_Abuse/Tobacco/Industry&u=http%3a%2f%2fpersonalmd.com%2fnews%2fa1998100608.shtml&t=lst/Health/Addictions/Substance_Abuse/Tobacco/Industry. Accessed July 17, 2005.

22 “Complex Cocktail—Cigarette Additives,” BBS News. Feb. 17, 1999. Available at: http://www.no-smoking.org/feb99/02-19-99-4.html. Accessed July 20,2005.

23 “What Is In Your Smokes?” Available at: http://www.msbcbs.com/msbc_health_smoking.htm. Accessed July 20, 2005.

24 Bates, Clive, Jarvis, Martin, and Connolly, Gregory. “Tobacco Additives: Cigarette Engineering and Nicotine Addiction.” July 14, 1999. Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/additives.html. Accessed July 20, 2005.

25 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Reducing Tobacco Use: A Report of the Surgeon General.” Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and HealthPromotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2000, 5:184.

26 Rowland, Rhonda. “Smokers May Be Inhaling More Nicotine, Tar, Than They Think.” CNN News. Jan. 18, 2000. Available at: http://archives.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/01/18/nicotine.warning/index.html. Accessed July 20, 2005.

27 “The Peninsular War,” Quarterly Review. London, 1913, 127.

28 James I of England, King of Scotland and Stuart King of England, 1566–1625. Available at: http://en.thinkexist.com/quotation/a_custom_loathsome_to_the_eye-hateful_to_the_nose/172178.html. Accessed July 18, 2005.

29 Rush, Benjamin, Essays, Moral, Political and Philosophical. Philadelphia, 1798, 264.

30 Letter from John Quincy Adams to Reverend Samuel H. Cox, D.D. Brooklyn, New York. Aug. 29, 1845. Available at: http://medicolegal.tripod.com/lane1845.htm#adamsletter. Accessed July 18, 2005.

31 Bookchin, Murray, Environment And Cancer: Our Synthetic Environment. Harper and Row, London, 1975. Available at: http://dwardmac.pitzer.edu/anarchist_archives/bookchin/syntheticenviron/ose5.html. Accessed July 18, 2005.

32 Taylor, C. Barr and Killen, Joel D., The Facts About Smoking. (Consumer Reports Books, Yonkers, NY: 1991), 10.

33 Smoking and Health, Report of the Advisory Committee of the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. 1964. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1964/sgr64.htm. Accessed July 18, 2005.

34 Gallup Poll. November 1949. Available at: http://cigarette.com/images/timeline.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2005.

35 “Nicotine Addiction in Britain—A Report of the Tobacco Advisory Group of the Royal College of Physicians.” February 2000. Available at: http://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/pubs/books/nicotine/index.htm. Accessed July 22, 2005.

36 Hunt, William A., Barnett, L. W., and Branch, L. G. Relapse Rates in Addiction Programs. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 27:4 (1971): 455–456.

37 Philip Morris, “Evaluation of the DeNoble Nicotine Acetaldehyde Data, Tobacco Resolution.” 1982. Bates Number: 2056144727-4728. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/cgi/getdoc?tid=vgf53e00&fmt=pdf&ref=results. Accessed July 22, 2005.

38 Ibid.

39 “Philip Morris, Termination of Chronic Acetaldehyde Administration Does Not Result in a Physical Dependence Syndrome.” September 1986. Bates Number: 2048920385-0386. Available at: http://www.pmdocs.com/getimg.asp?pgno=0&start=0&if=avpidx&bool=Termination%20of%20chronic%20acetaldehyde%20administration%20does%20not%20result%20in%20a%20physical%20dependence%20syndrome&docid=2048920385/0386&docnum=1&summary=0&sel1=. Accessed July 23, 2005.

40 Kessler, David, A Question of Intent. 2001. PublicAffairs, New York, 83.

41 Ibid.

42 Farone, W. A., Thoughts on Philip Morris Response on Manipulation and Control: The Use of Casings and Flavorings: Installment 2. Draft Document. March 27, 1996. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/mqh01d00. Accessed Sept. 23, 2005. Bates No. 520942227/2231.

43 Bates, Clive; Jarvis, Martin; and Connolly, Gregory. Tobacco Additives: Cigarette Engineering and Nicotine Addiction. July 14, 1999. Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/additives.html. Accessed July 20, 2005.

44 Kessler, David, A Question of Intent. 2001. PublicAffairs, New York, 117.

45 Ontario Court of Justice (General Division). Caputo, Roth, Cawardine and Hyduck v. Imperial Tobacco Limited, Benson & Hedges Inc., RJR-Macdonald Inc. Class Proceedings Act of 1992. Particulars Pursuant to the Order of Master Peppiatt. April 12, 1996. Available at: http://www.sommersandroth.com/cases-caputo-particulars.htm. Accessed July 22, 2005.

46 Kuzma, Cindy, The Chemistry of Cigarettes: It's More Than Nicotine. Available at: Britannica.com by subscription.

47 British American Tobacco Company. Reports B44 and B45. Nov. 2, 1977. Bates Number: 100995393-5394. Available at: http://www.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/batco/html/12100/12166/index.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.

48 Farone, W. A. Thoughts on Philip Morris Response on Manipulation and Control: The Use of Casings and Flavorings: Installment 2. Draft Document. March 27, 1996. Available at: http://legacy.ucsf.edu/tid/mqh01d00. Accessed Sept. 23, 2005. Bates No. 520942227/2231.

49 Kuzma, Cindy, The Chemistry of Cigarettes: It's More Than Nicotine. Available at: Britannica.com by subscription.

50 British American Tobacco Company. Reports B44 and B45. Nov. 2, 1977. Bates Number: 100995393-5304. Available at: http://www.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/batco/html/12100/12166/index.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.

49 Kuzma, Cindy, The Chemistry of Cigarettes: It's More Than Nicotine. Available at: Britannica.com by subscription.

50 “Smoking Just Got Sweeter,” News 24.com. March 6, 2004. London. Available at: http://www.news24.com/News24/World/News/0,,2-10-1462_1536902,00.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.Ibid.

51 http://www.drugs.indiana.edu/resources/druginfo/drugs/tobaccoadditives.html, Accessed July 10, 2005. Accessibility verified July 10, 2005 and World Conference on Tobacco or Health. August 6, 2003. Available at: http://www.wctoh2003.org/WctohPress//News/addiction/view. Accessed July 23, 2005.

52 National Public Radio morning edition transcript of April 8, 1994. Contact NPR for more information. Also: http://artofhacking.com/IET/FREEDOM/TOBACCO.TXT.

53 Lewan, Todd, “Brazil’s Secret: Crazy Tobacco.” Dec. 21, 1997. Associated Press. Santa Cruz Do Sul, Brazil. Available at: http://www.cnr.berkeley.edu/~steggall/8Nov97-10Jan99.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.

54 FDA v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. (98-1152) 529 U.S. 120 (2000). 153 F.3d 155, affirmed. Available at: http://straylight.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/98-1152.ZS.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.

55 Kessler, D. A., A Question of Intent: A Great American Battle with a Deadly Industry. New York, NY: Public Afairs, p. 84.

56 Novotny and Zhao (Tobacco Control 1999; 75–80).

57 U.S. import and exports history database, U.S. Department of Commerce.

58 Ibid.

59 Daley Class Action Lawsuit In Chicago Challenges Constitutionality of Proposed Deal. Available at: http://ash.org/chicago.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.

60 Clearing the Smoke: Assessing the Science Base for Tobacco Harm Reduction.” 2001. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/books/0309072824/html/82.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.

61 Bates , C., Jarvis, M., Connolly, G., Tobacco additives: Cigarette engineering and nicotine addiction. [manuscript]. 1999. Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/additives.html. Accessed December 10, 2002. Accessibility verified July 10, 2003. Bates No. 83452276.

62 The interaction between nicotine phase chemistry and physiological effect is discussed by Fowles in Fowles, J. Chemical factors influencing the addictiveness and attractiveness of cigarettes in New Zealand [report]. Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited; 2001. Available at: http://www.ndp.govt.nz/tobacco/documents/cigaretteaddictiveness.pdf. Accessed March 12, 2003. Accessibility verified May 14, 2006."Nicotine is a weak base with a pKa of 8.0. This means that at a pH of 8.0, 50% of the nicotine will be ionised at equilibrium. As the pH of cigarette smoke increases, the relative amount of unionised nicotine (and other related alkaloids) will increase. This is important for two reasons. First, 'free base' compounds, including unionised nicotine, are more volatile than the ionised counterparts. As chemicals become more volatile and separate from the particulate (tar droplet) phase to the vapour phase, they diffuse more rapidly and are better distributed throughout the lung more quickly, gaining access to lung membranes (46). In addition, the free base nicotine content in the tobacco rod has a lower boiling point, which means that more nicotine can be transferred from the tobacco to the aerosol. Second, unionised compounds traverse biological membranes with greater ease than the equivalent chemicals when ionized”.

63 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freebase.

64 Bates, C., Jarvis, M., Connolly, G., Tobacco additives: Cigarette engineering and nicotine addiction. [manuscript]. 1999. Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/additives.html. Accessed Dec. 10, 2002. Accessibility verified July 10, 2003. Bates No. 83452276.

65 Ibid.

66 Ibid.

67 Ibid.

68 “Witness: Cigarette Makers Knew Risks.” Jan. 29, 1998. Available at: http://www.tobacco.org/News/98minnesota.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.

69 Freedman, Alix M. “‘Impact Booster’: Tobacco Firm Shows How Ammonia Spurs Delivery of Nicotine.” The Wall Street Journal. Dec. 28, 1995. Available at: http://www.pulitzer.org/year/1996/national-reporting/works/impact.html. Accessed July 23, 2005.

70 Ibid.

71 Bates , C., Jarvis, M., Connolly, G., Tobacco additives: Cigarette engineering and nicotine addiction. [manuscript]. 1999. Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/additives.html. Accessed December 10, 2002. Accessibility verified July 10, 2003. Bates No. 83452276.

72 The interaction between nicotine phase chemistry and physiological effect is discussed by Fowles in Fowles, J. Chemical factors influencing the addictiveness and attractiveness of cigarettes in New Zealand [report]. Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited; 2001. Available at: http://www.ndp.govt.nz/tobacco/documents/cigaretteaddictiveness.pdf. Accessed March 12, 2003. Accessibility verified May 14, 2006."Nicotine is a weak base with a pKa of 8.0. This means that at a pH of 8.0, 50% of the nicotine will be ionised at equilibrium. As the pH of cigarette smoke increases, the relative amount of unionised nicotine (and other related alkaloids) will increase. This is important for two reasons. First, 'free base' compounds, including unionised nicotine, are more volatile than the ionised counterparts. As chemicals become more volatile and separate from the particulate (tar droplet) phase to the vapour phase, they diffuse more rapidly and are better distributed throughout the lung more quickly, gaining access to lung membranes (46). In addition, the free base nicotine content in the tobacco rod has a lower boiling point, which means that more nicotine can be transferred from the tobacco to the aerosol. Second, unionised compounds traverse biological membranes with greater ease than the equivalent chemicals when ionized”. .73 Bates, C., Jarvis, M., Connolly, G., Tobacco additives: Cigarette engineering and nicotine addiction. [manuscript]. 1999. Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/additives.html. Accessed Dec. 10, 2002. Accessibility verified July 10, 2003. Bates No. 83452276.

74 ASH Review, March-April 1994, p.7. Also, http://www.globalink.org/tobacco/trg, then click on link for Chapter 19.

75 Bates, C., Jarvis, M., Connolly, G., Tobacco additives: Cigarette engineering and nicotine addiction. (Manuscript). 1999. Available at: http://www.ash.org.uk/html/regulation/html/additives.html. Accessed Dec. 10, 2002. Accessibility verified July 10, 2003. Bates No. 83452276.Fowles, J., Chemical factors influencing the addictiveness and attractiveness of cigarettes in New Zealand (Report). Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited; 2001. Available at: http://www.ndp.govt.nz/tobacco/documents/cigaretteaddictiveness.pdf. Accessed March 12, 2003. Accessibility verified July 28, 2004.

76 Connolly, G.N., Wayne, G.D., Lymperis, D., and Doherty, M. C., “How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke.” Tobacco Control. 2000; 9(3):283–91.

77 Chest, November 1996, p. 1194.

78 The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine. 1994;330:1029–1035.

79 Ibid., p. 197.

80 British Medical Journal, Jan. 13, 1996, p. 112.

81 Opdyke, D. L. J., Isovaleric acid [Scientific Publication]. Lorillard; December 1979. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/zuh98c00. Accessed March 20, 2003. Accessibility verified July 10, 2004. Bates No. 87500751/0753.

82 The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group. The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. New England Journal of Medicine. 1994;330:1029–1035, p. 197.

83 Levin, M. The Greatest Health Protection In Cigarette History. Available at: http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1005/Levin/Levin.html.

84 Longo, W. E., Rigler, M. W., Slade, J., Crocidolite asbestos fibers in smoke from original Kent cigarettes/ Cancer Research, 1995; 55: 2232–2235.

85 Rep. Mike Synar on CSPAN, April 14, 1994. Also http://www.globalink.org/tobacco/trg/Chapter19/Chap19_Ingredients_AdditivesPage6.html.

86 Celebucki, C. C., Wayne, G. F., Connolly, G. N., Pankow, J. F., Chang, E. I., Characterization of measured menthol in 48 U.S. cigarette sub-brands. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. August 2005;7(4):523–31. and "That cool draw may be deadlier". Business Week. Sept. 5, 2005. p. 13.

87 The data was collected from reports submitted to DPH from 1998 to 2004 by all tobacco companies that sell cigarettes in the state, as required by Massachusetts General Law. Massachusetts is one of only three states in the country to require tobacco companies to submit this information annually. http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=pressreleases&agId=Eeohhs2&prModName=dphpressrelease&prFile=pr_060829_nicotine.xml.

88 http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=pressreleases&agId=Eeohhs2&prModName=dphpressrelease&prFile=pr_060829_nicotine.xml.

89 http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld1.html and R. Kluger, Ashes to Ashes— America’s Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris, (Alfred A. Knopf, New York: 1996), p. 324 quoting C. Thompson, Memo to Kloepfer, Oct. 18, 1968 [Cipollone 2725] H. Wakeham, Best Program for CTR, Dec. 8, 1970 {Minn. Trial Exhibit 11,586}.

90 Re: outline concerning lung cancer. Company/Source: British American Tobacco (Ness collection) Document Date: April 27, 1984 Bates No. 201774616/4619 http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/41582.pdf.

91 “The ETS Issue: Science and Politics.” Company/Source: Philip Morris (now a division of Altria Group) Document Date: January 1987 Bates No. 2023551401/1404 http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/2023551401-1404.pdf.

92 Philip Morris and British American Tobacco (both Bates numbers appear on the document). Note on a Special Meeting of the UK Industry on Environmental Tobacco Smoke, London. 880217 Feb. 17, 1988 (est.) Bates Nos. (PM) 2063791182/1187 and (BAT) 401247331/7336 http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/2063791182-1187.pdf.

93 Plans, M. L., Philip Morris document, 1993. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/tba35e00.

94 Farone, W., Pyridine Studies. Philip Morris; April 11, 1996. [memo]. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kgn93c00. Accessed November 11. Accessed November 11, 2004. Availability verified July 9, 2005. Bates No. 2064791028.

95 Uydess, I. L. Declaration of Ian L. Uydess Ph.D. [telephone record]. R. J. Reynolds; March 1, 1996. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/iwh56d00. Accessed November 11, 2004. Availability verified July 9, 2005. Bates No. 514829674/9698. p. 6.

96 Uydess, I. L., Trial testimony of WILLIAM ANTHONY FARONE, Ph.D. Feb. 20, 2002 [p.m.], SCHWARZ v. PHILIP MORRIS INC. [trial testimony] Philip Morris; February 20, 2002. p. 53. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/ztn05a00. Accessed July 31, 2005. Availability verified July 31, 2005. DATTA Transcripts.

97 Uydess, I. L., Declaration of Ian L. Uydess Ph.D. [telephone record]. R. J. Reynolds; March 1, 1996. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/iwh56d00. Accessed November 11, 2004. pp. 21–22. Availability verified July 9, 2005. Bates No. 514829674/9698.

98 TRANSCRIPT OF THE FLORIDA TOBACCO LITIGATION SYMPOSIUM—FACT, LAW, POLICY, AND SIGNIFICANCE. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF LAW, Copyright © 1998 Florida State University Law Review Available at: http://www.law.fsu.edu/journals/lawreview/frames/254/tobatxt.html. Verified July 31, 2005. DATTA Transcripts.

99 Ibid.

100 Ibid.

101 Ibid.

102 Kessler, David. A Question of Intent. 2001. Public Affairs, New York, p. 144.

103 Ibid., p. 149.

104 Ibid., pp. 153–154.

105 http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/VA-Pilot/issues/1994/vp941211/12110053.htm.

106 Kessler, David. A Question of Intent. 2001. Public Affairs, New York, p. 154.

107 Kessler, D. A., Statement on Nicotine-Containing Cigarettes. Testimony Before House Subcommittee on Health and the Environment. March 25, 1994. Tobacco Control. 1994;3: 148–158. Available at: http://tc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/reprint/3/2/148?ijkey=c32504f68ee003fd8de81f2289aa087ad8b67343&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha. Accessed July 23, 2005.

108 Kessler, David. A Question of Intent. 2001. Public Affairs, New York, 171–172. Regarding the issue of whether smoking causes cancer, Jim Johnson of R. J. Reynolds replied, “It may…. I don’t know.” Andrew Tisch of Lorillard replied, “I don’t believe so,” and Bill Campbell of Philip Morris replied, “To my knowledge, it has not been proven that cigarette smoking causes cancer.” In response to a question regarding whether they believed nicotine was addictive, all seven CEOs gave the same answer: “I believe that nicotine is not addictive.”

109 “The Changing Cigarette. A Report of the Surgeon General,” 1981. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1981/index.htm. Accessed July 23, 2005.

110 http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld2.html. A. McCormick, Smoking and Health: Policy on Research, Minutes of Southampton Meeting, 1962 {1102.01} A. Yeaman, Implications of Battelle Hippo 1 & 11 and the Griffith Filter, July 17, 1963, Memo {1802.05} C. Haselbach, O Libert, Final Report on Project Hippo, Battelle Memorial Institute for BAT, 1963, {1211.03}.

111 http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld1.html. C. Teague, R. J. Reynolds, Survey of Cancer Research with Emphasis Upon Possible Carcinogens from Tobacco, Feb. 2, 1953.

112 http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld1.html and Report on Visit to USA and Canada by H. R. Bentley, DGI Felton and WW Reid of BAT, April 17– May 12, 1958 {Minn. Trial Exhibit 11,028}.

113 http://www.ash.org.uk/html/conduct/html/tobexpld1.html. And P. J. Hilts, “Smokescreen—The Truth Behind the Tobacco Industry Cover-Up.” 1996, Addison Wesley, p. 25 quoting A. D. Little, Confidential Limited Memo, L&M—A Perspective Review, March 15, 1961.

114 Maugh II, Thomas H., “Research Shows Teens Are Easily Hooked On Tobacco. Study: Young Girls Become Addicted Even Faster Than Boys.” Los Angeles Times. August 2002. Available at: http://www.detnews.com/2002/health/0209/04/health-574328.htm. Accessed July 23, 2005.