Ending The Tobacco Holocaust Chapter 5 References and Footnotes:

Ending The Tobacco Holocaust: how Big Tobacco affects our health, pocketbook and political freedom, and what we can do about it.

Chapter 5: The Global Tobacco War:
At Home and Around the World.




1 http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/2025421658-1712.html
and
http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/cgi/getdoc?tid=kxz88e00&fmt=pdf&ref=results

2 CIAR to provide “Ammunition” – PM letter. Philip Morris. April 25, 1988.

3 Ibid.

4 From files of Owen C. Smith, Associate General Counsel of Philip Morris: Some Reflections on Our Present Discontent – or Why We Are Losing the Public Affairs War on Tobacco? Philip Morris executive. 1990 (est.).

5 Ibid.

6 Dollison, J., PMI Marketing Conference. “Corporate Affairs”. [speech] June 21, 1990. Philio Morris. Bates No. 2500120138/0153 . Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/nzd42e00.

7 Ellen Merlo Issues Talking Points to PM USA Trade Council. Philip Morris. Jan. 11, 1994.

8 Ibid.

9 France, Mike, “Inside Big Tobacco’s War Room.” Business Week. April 1994.

10 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/settlement/case/notes.html.

11 http://aolsvc.pbs.aol.com/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/settlement/etc/script.html.

12 Ibid.

13 France, Mike, “Inside Big Tobacco’s War Room.” Business Week. April 1994.

14 “Collusion Between the Republicans and Big Tobacco,” Newsweek. Aug. 19, 2002.

15 Fulton County Daily Report, April 20, 2000. Gentry Phillips; Montgomery Larmoyeux; Ness Motley. The state of Florida, plaintiffs, v. the American Tobacco Company, defendants. Plaintiffs’ 970113 motion to compel production of those documents referenced in the 970109 Wall Street Journal article entitled “Another Break in Tobacco Industry’s Ranks” and all other documents in defendants’ possession or control referring or relating to the Committee of Counsel, the Council of Counsel or any other committee comprised of Counsel of the tobacco industry. Case No. 95-1466AH. Jan.13, 1997. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/gut62c00. Accessed Dec. 4, 2002. Availability verified Dec. 4, 2005. Bated No. 2077783539/3544.

16 Byrne, J. Philip Morris. Inside America’s Most reviled company. Business Week. Nov. 29, 1999, pp. 176–192.

17 As this book was going to press, a new edition was being published by the American Cancer Society. It is available for online viewing at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/AA/content/AA_2_5_9x_Tobacco_Atlas.asp?, and can be ordered from the American Cancer Society at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/pub/pub_0.asp.

18 A 2006 reference states that 67% of all Chinese men smoke. MacKay, J., Eriksen, M., and Shafey, O. The Tobacco Atlas, 2nd Edition, published by the American Cancer Society, 2006, Atlanta, GA, p. 23.

19 “Asian Tobacco Holocaust,” BBC. Nov. 27, 1998.

20 Elif, Kaban. “U.N. Working On World’s First Anti-Smoking Treaty.” Geneva (Reuters). Oct. 25, 1999.

21 Ibid.

22 “United Nations Convention on Tobacco Control Approved by 167 Countries.” The Manila Bulletin Online. March 7, 2005.

23 Murray, C. and Lopez, A., The Global Burden of Disease. Volume 1, p. 316. Shibuya, K., Ciecierski, C., Guindon, E., Bettcher, D. W., Evans, D. B., Murray, C. J.; WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: development of an evidence-based global public health treaty. British Meiddal Journal. July 19, 2003;327(7407): 154–157.

23 Much of the dated information comes from an excellent and more extensive review of this issue on the Internet at: http://www.essentialaction.org/addicted/. From the information I have been receiving, the global expansion of the major transnational tobacco corporations has accelerated since that review on the web was written. We will have to see how well the FCTC can counter that expansion throughout the developing world. Regarding the discussion of international expansion, I hope I have pointed out Big Tobacco’s intent and efforts, and I can only say mea culpa regarding the somewhat dated material. I was not able to find readily available and current sources that summarize this truly global topic. If a second edition of this book is written, this is an area that will need to be brought more fully up to date.

24 U.S. to be shut out of global tobacco treaty negotiations. American Public Health Association’s newsletter, The Nation’s Health, December 2005, p. 14.

25 Akhter, Mohammed, "Expanding a Deadly Export Business." Washington Post. Sept. 11, 1997.

26 Executive Summary of the 2004 U.S. Surgeon General’s Report on Tobacco, http://www.essentialaction.org/addicted/.

27 MacKay, J., Eriksen, M., and Shafey, O., The Tobacco Atlas, 2nd Edition, published by the American Cancer Society, 2006, Atlanta, GA, p. 52.

28 “International Cigarette Manufacturers,” Tobacco Reporter. April 1997.

29 Ibid.

30 In 2006, British American Tobacco controlled 15.1% of the global cigarette market. MacKay, J., Eriksen, M., and Shafey, O., The Tobacco Atlas, 2nd Edition, published by American Cancer Society, 2006, Atlanta, GA, p. 52.

31 “The World According to BAT,” Tobacco International. May 1996.

32 Blackwell, David and Barham, John, “BAT: Turkish Joint Venture Formed.” Financial Times. Jan. 6, 1998.

33 Ashworth, Jon., “BAT Pays Pounds 1bn for Half of Mexico's Tobacco Trade.” The Times. July 23, 1997.

34 Daeschner, Jeff, “BAT Mexico Buy Seals LatAm Presence.” Reuters. July 22, 1997.

35 “RJR Nabisco Reports 1997 Results,” RJR Nabisco Company Press Release. Jan. 27, 1998.

36 “International Cigarette Manufacturers,” Tobacco Reporter. April 1997.

37 Tuinstra, Taco, “RJR Sees Tanzania as Launch Pad into Eastern Africa.” Tobacco Reporter. June 1997.

38 Warigi, Gitau, “Cigarette War Looms as US Firms Move In.” The East African. Dec. 9–15, 1996.

39 “R. J. Reynolds Opens $9 million Cigarette Plant in Tunisia,” Reuters. Nov. 12, 1997.

40 U.S. Embassy (Ankara), “Tobacco.” Report to the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Feb. 12, 1998.

41 Rupert, James and Frankel, Glen, “In Ex-Soviet Markets, U.S. Brands Took on Role of Capitalist Liberator.” Washington Post. Nov. 19, 1996.

42 Ibid.

43 Holmes, Charles, “Big Tobacco Exhales – in Russia.” Cox News Service. Sept. 14, 1997.

44 “Big Tobacco Targets Russia,” CNN Financial News. March 16, 1998.

45 “R. J. Reynolds International,” Tobacco International. April 1997.

46 “Tobacco Reporter/TMA Data Page,” Tobacco Reporter. Winter 1998.

47 “Big Tobacco Targets Russia,” CNN Financial News. March 16, 1998.

48 Ibid.

49 York, Geoffrey, Globe & Mail. Dec. 30, 1996.

50 Dolgov, Anna, “Russia's Friendly to Tobacco Cos.” Associated Press. Feb. 28, 1998.

51 Arvedlund, Erin, “Where There's Smoke There's Money.” St. Petersburg Times. Nov. 11–17, 1996.

52 “Excise Duty On Russian Cigarettes May Be Increased,” BizEkon News. Nov. 5, 1997.

53 “Russia,” Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report. (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997).

54 Lally, Katy, “West Sets Spark to Russian Smoking.” Baltimore Sun. Oct. 19, 1997.

55 Holmes, Charles, “Big Tobacco Exhales – in Russia.” Cox News Service. Sept. 14, 1997.

56 Warpinski, Anastasia, “Tobacco Firms Crave Romanian Market.” Wall Street Journal. Sept. 19, 1997.

57 Frankel, Glenn, “White Hose Finds Anti-Tobacco Pledge Not So Easy to Keep.” Washington Post. Nov. 18, 1996.

58 della Cava, Marco R., “Romania Typical Foreign Target of Tobacco Firms.” USA Today. Aug. 8, 1997.

59 Tuinstra, Taco, “After Privatization.” Tobacco Reporter. Winter 1998 Special Issue.

60 Styczek, Dariusz, “Tobacco Industry: Gasping and Wheezing.” Warsaw Voice. June 22, 1997.

61 “Poland.” in Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report, (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997).

62 Dr. MacKay’s presentation at the 13th World Congress On Tobacco OR Health.

63 Faison, Seth, “The Next Battleground for Tobacco?” The New York Times. Aug. 28, 1997.

64 “Beyond the Clouds – Tobacco Smoking in China.” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 278, No. 18, Nov. 12, 1997.

65 “Smoking Among Chinese Youth: A Cure for Crying?” Tobacco Control. Vol. 2, No. 1, March 1993.

66 Ross, Emma, “China Smoking Deaths Rising.” Associated Press. London. Aug. 15, 2001.

67 “Is Tobacco in China a Sunset Industry?” Inter-Press Service. July 7, 1997.

68 Qinghua, Zhao, “China Syndrome.” Tobacco International. March 1998.

69 Lim, Benjamin Kang, “China in Uphill Battle Against Smoking.” Reuters. Aug. 21, 1997.

70 “Anti Agenda Advancing,” Tobacco Reporter. August 1996.

71 Honghuan, Y., The epidemic of tobacco use in China. In Tobacco: science, policy, and public health. Edited by Boyle, P., Gray, N., Henningfeld, J., Seffrin, J., and Zatonski, W. Oxford University Press, 2004, NY, NY. pp. 215–6. I have been told by some Chinese economists that tax on tobacco products accounted for about 8% of all tax revenue in 2006. The decline since the 1990s is not due to a decrease in spending on tobacco products, which continues to increase, but rather on the rapid growth of the Chinese economy].

72 “China: A Time Bomb for the 21st Century,” (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997).

73 “Cigarette Smoking in China,.” Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 274, No. 15, Oct. 18, 1995.

74 “Health-China: Is Tobacco in China a Sunset Industry?” Inter Press Service. July 7, 1997.

75 “The Smoke Won’t Clear For Years,” The Standard. March 7, 2005.

76 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3917177.stm.

77 MacKay J, Eriksen M and Shafey O, The Tobacco Atlas, 2nd Edition, published by American Cancer Society, 2006, Atlanta, GA, p. 52.

78 http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/pmintl/pages/eng/press/pr_20051221.asp.

79 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3917177.stm.

80 http://www.philipmorrisinternational.com/pmintl/pages/eng/press/pr_20051221.asp.

81 http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China_Business/HC10Cb01.html.

82 Jenkins, Christopher; Dai, Pham Xuan; Ngoc, Do Hong; Kinh, Hoang Van; Hoang, Truong Trong; Bales, Sara; Stewart, Susan; and McPhee, Stephen, “Tobacco Use in Vietnam: Prevalence, Predictors, and the Role of the Transnational Tobacco Corporations.” Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 277, No. 21, June 4, 1997.

83 Tuinstra, Taco, “The Might of the Tiger.” Tobacco Reporter. March 1998.

84 “Vietnam Tops World Smoking League for Men,” British Medical Journal. No. 7095, Vol. 314, June 7, 1997.

85 Dai, Pham Xuan, Ngoc, Do Hong, Hoang, Truong Trong, and Jenkins, Christopher, “Vietnam: A Tobacco Epidemic in the Making.” (San Francisco: University of California–San Francisco, 1995.)

86 Tuinstra, Taco, “The Might of the Tiger.” Tobacco Reporter. March 1998.

87 Tuinstra, Taco, “Growing the Crop.” Tobacco Reporter. March 1998.

88 “"Vietnam Tops World Smoking League for Men.” British Medical Journal. No. 7095, Vol. 314. June 7. 1997.

89 Flint, Anthony, “In Vietnam, a New Western Invasion.” The Boston Globe. June 9, 1996.

90 “"Vietnam,” in Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report. (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997).

91 MacKay, Judith, “Summary of Report on Tobacco Workshop in Ho Chi Minh City,” July 20–26, 1996, posted on GlobaLink.

92 “Vietnam,” in Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report. (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997).

93 Dai, Pham Xuan, Ngoc, Do Hong, Hoang, Truong Trong, and Jenkins, Christopher, “Vietnam: A Tobacco Epidemic in the Making.” (San Francisco: University of California–San Francisco, 1995).

94 MacKay, Judith, “Summary of Report on Tobacco Workshop in Ho Chi Minh City,” July 20–26 1996, posted on GlobaLink.

95 “BAT Buys Mexico’s Biggest Cigarette Maker,” Advertising Age. July 25, 1997.

96 Crawford, Leslie, “The Big Draw for Cigarette Companies.” Financial Post. July 30, 1997.

97 Cataeda, Karla Malo Juvera, “La Industria Cigarrera en Mexico.” (Mexico City: Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo Mexico, 1996).

98 “Mexico,” in Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report. (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997).

99 Cataeda, Karla Malo Juvera, “La Industria Cigarrera en Mexico.” (Mexico City: Instituto Tecnologico Autonomo Mexico, 1996).

100 Ibid.

101 “Addicted to Profit: Global Tobacco’s Expanding Reach. Country Case Studies: Mexico: A New Export Platform,” http://www.essentialaction.org/addicted/addicted.html.

102 “Senegal,” in Tobacco or Health: A Global Status Report. (Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997).

103 McGruder, Carol, “Tobacco’s Global Ghettos: Big Tobacco Targets The World’s Poor. (San Francisco: San Francisco Tobacco Free Coalition, 1997).

104 Bonner, Raymond and Drew, Christopher, “Cigarette Makers Are Seen as Aiding Rise in Smuggling.” The New York Times. Aug. 25, 1997.

105 MacKay, J., Eriksen, M. and Shafey, O., The Tobacco Atlas, 2nd Edition, published by the American Cancer Society, 2006, Atlanta, GA, p. 57.

106 Bonner, Raymond and Drew, Christopher, “Cigarette Makers Are Seen as Aiding Rise in Smuggling.” The New York Times. Aug. 25, 1997.

107 http://www.tobacco.org/news/107202.html?top_only=1 and Stanton Glantz’s listserv e-mail mailing Oct. 31, 2002, which summarized from Stecklow, S. “When Cigarettes Reach Iraq, Uday Hussein Colllects a Fee.” Wall Street Journal. Oct. 31, 2002. And statement of Matthew L. Myers, president of campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids: U.S. Should Crack Down On Cigarette Smuggling, Including in Iraq. Oct. 30, 2002, and http://www.ash.org.uk/html/smuggling/html/wsjiraq.html.

108 Frankel, Glenn., “Smuggling a Burning Issue for China.” Washington Post. Nov. 20, 1996.

109 Joosens, L., and Raw, M., “Cigarette smuggling in Europe: who really benefits?” Tobacco Control. 1998;7:66–71.

110 Bonner, Raymond and Drew, Christopher, “Cigarette Makers Are Seen as Aiding Rise in Smuggling.” The New York Times. Aug. 25, 1997.

111 “FET Grassroots Program,” Found among Philip Morris documents; appears to be written by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and faxed to Philip Morris. April 6, 1998.

112 Bonner, Raymond and Drew, Christopher, “Cigarette Makers Are Seen as Aiding Rise in Smuggling.” The New York Times. Aug. 25, 1997.

113 “RJR, Black Market Linked: Papers Show Company Knew About Canadian Cigarette-Smuggling Ring.” Associated Press. Aug. 17, 1997.

114 http://www.ash.org.uk/html/smuggling/html/latimes021110.html.

115 http://biz.yahoo.com/rb/021104/court_tobacco_3.html.

116 http://www.fctc.org/archives/news248.shtml.

117 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R.J._Reynolds_Tobacco_Company
and
http://lists.essential.org/pipermail/intl-tobacco/2005q3/001267.html.

118 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R. J._Reynolds_Tobacco_Company.

119 Philip Morris, “EU resolve smuggling charges. Tobacco firm pays up to $1.25 billion to help combat trafficking.” Associated Press, July 9, 2004.

120 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Tobacco_Company.

121 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/R. J._Reynolds_Tobacco.

122 “Tobacco Company Warns Of Consequences Of Raising Tax,” The Associated Press. Olympia. April 8, 2005.

123 http://www.fctc.org/archives/news248.shtml.

124 http://www.jointogether.org/news/headlines/inthenews/2006/tobacco-tax-supports.html.

125 http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/campaign/global/casestudies/china.pdf#search='China%20cigarette%20import%20quota’.

126 http://china.org.cn/english/BAT/42969.htm.

127 Senators Durbin, Richard and Wyden, Ron, “Big Tobacco Must Stop Targeting Kids Worldwide.” Roll Call. March 23, 1998.

128 http://lists.essential.org/pipermail/intl-tobacco/2000q2/000123.html.

129 Stancill, Nancy, “Black-Market Allure of US Cigarettes Tempts Teens in China.” Charlotte Observer. Oct. 19, 1997.

130 As this book was going to press, a new edition was being published by the American Cancer Society. It is available for online viewing at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/AA/content/AA_2_5_9x_Tobacco_Atlas.asp? and can be ordered from the American Cancer Society at: http://www.cancer.org/docroot/pub/pub_0.asp.