Ending The Tobacco Holocaust Chapter 8 References and Footnotes:
Ending The Tobacco Holocaust: how Big Tobacco affects our health, pocketbook and political freedom, and what we can do about it.
Chapter 8: Is Hollywood Addicted?
(... And If So, Why?)
1 Yes, I know it’s a shocking, sensational chapter title. But if it got you to pick up this book and helped you become more aware of something that will kill 1 billion people and cause suffering in another billion people during this century, and take action about it, then it was well worth using the chapter title as a way to grab your attention. (It’s unlikely that a scientifically stated hypothesis title, such as “Is it possible that the population of successful Hollywood celebrities has a greater prevalence of gene alleles that lead to phenotypic expression of both novelty seeking and smoking behavior?” would be as effective at grabbing people’s attention.)
2 Gladwell, M., The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. (Little Brown and Company, New York, NY: 2000 and 2002.)
3 Malibu is home to many movie stars. “Nolte other stars nabbed on Malibu road.” By Andrew Glazer, Associated Press Writer. Aug. 2, 2006.
10 It is beyond the scope of this book to explore in detail the relationship of personality type to smoking. For the scientist types wishing to explore papers that support the view that there is a relationship between smoking and novelty seeking, please see the following ten articles. Please also note, that while the following articles support the hypothesis, there are some other research articles that don’t: the topic is complex, there is no definitely proven link between personality type that is accepted by all scientists, and research efforts on this topic are ongoing.
1. Audrain-McGovern, J., Tercyak, K. P., Shields, A. E., Bush, A., Espinel, C. F., Lerman, C., “Which adolescents are most receptive to tobacco industry marketing? implications for counter-advertising campaigns.” Health Communications. 2003;15(4):499–513.
2. Livaditis, M., Samakouri, M., Kafalis, G., Tellidou, C., Tzavaras, N., Sociodemographic and psychological characteristics associated with smoking among Greek medical students. European Addiction Research. March 2001;7(1):24–31.
3. Lynskey, M. T., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., “The origins of the correlations between tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use during adolescence.” Journal of Child Psychology Psychiatry. October 1998;39(7):995–1005.
4. Van Ammers, E. C., Sellman, J. D., Mulder, R. T., “Temperament and substance abuse in schizophrenia: is there a relationship?” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. May 1997;185(5):283–8.
5. Audrain-McGovern, J., Rodriguez, D., Tercyak, K. P., Cuevas, J., Rodgers, K., Patterson, F., “Identifying and characterizing adolescent smoking trajectories.” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. December 2004;13(12):2023–34.
6. Nakamura-Tani T., “Human personality traits are associated with individual environmental traits in male adolescents—a pilot study.” Comprehensive Psychiatry. January-February 2005 ;46(1):56–60.
7. Audrain-McGovern, J., Rodriguez, D., Patel, V., Faith, M. S., Rodgers, K., Cuevas, J.,”How do psychological factors influence adolescent smoking progression? The evidence for indirect effects through tobacco advertising receptivity.”Pediatrics. April 2006;117(4):1216–25.
8. Hu, M. C., Davies, M., Kandel, D. B., “Epidemiology and correlates of daily smoking and nicotine dependence among young adults in the United States.” Amercian Journal of Public Health. February 2006;96(2):299–308. Epub. Dec. 27, 2005. 9. Pomerleau, C. S., Pomerleau, O. F., Flessland, K. A., Basson, S. M., “Relationship of Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire scores and smoking variables in female and male smokers.” Journal of Substance Abuse. 1992;4(2):143–54.
10. Masse, L. C., Tremblay, R. E., “Behavior of boys in kindergarten and the onset of substance use during adolescence.” Archives of General Psychiatry. January 1997;54(1):62–8.
11 It is beyond the scope of this book to explore in detail the possible genetic basic of novelty seeking. For the scientist types wishing to explore papers that support the view that there are genetic factors that may play at least a partial role in novelty seeking, please refer to the following two articles. Please also note that while the following articles support the hypothesis, other research articles don’t: the topic is complex, there may be many intervening factors, there are no definitely proven gene alleles accepted by all scientists as clearly associated with novelty seeking, and research efforts on this topic are ongoing.
1. Kaasinen, V., Aalto, S., Nagren, K., Rinne, J. O., “Insular dopamine D2 receptors and novelty seeking personality in Parkinson’s disease.” Movement Disorders. November 2004;19(11):1348–51.
2. Lahti, J., Raikkonen, K., Ekelund, J., Peltonen, L., Raitakari, O. T., Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L., “Novelty seeking: interaction between parental alcohol use and dopamine D4 receptor gene exon III polymorphism over 17 years.” Psychiatric Genetics. June 2005;15(2):133–9.
3. Ebstein, R. P., The molecular genetic architecture of human personality: beyond self-report questionnaires. Molecular Psychiatry. May 11, 2006(5):427–45.
4. Serretti, A., Mandelli, L., Lorenzi, C., Landoni, S., Calati, R., Insacco, C., Cloninger, C. R.,Temperament and character in mood disorders: influence of DRD4, SERTPR, TPH and MAO-A polymorphisms. Neuropsychobiology. 2006;53(1):9–16. Epub Nov. 24, 2005.
5. Rogers, G., Joyce, P., Mulder, R., Sellman, D., Miller, A., Allington, M., Olds, R., Wells, E., Kennedy, M., American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics. April 1, 2004;126(1):95–8. Association of a duplicated repeat polymorphism in the 5'-untranslated region of the DRD4 gene with novelty seeking.
6. Thome, J., Weijers, H. G., Wiesbeck, G. A., Sian, J., Nara, K., Boning, J., Riederer, P., Dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism and alcohol dependence: relation to personality rating. Psychiatric Genetics. March 1999;9(1):17–21.
7. Sabol, S. Z., Nelson, M. L., Fisher, C., Gunzerath, L., Brody, C. L., Hu, S., Sirota, L. A., Marcus, S. E., Greenberg, B. D., Lucas, F. R. IV, Benjamin, J., Murphy, D. L., Hamer, D. H., A genetic association for cigarette smoking behavior. Journal of Health Psychology. January 1999;18(1):7–13.
12 It is beyond the scope of this book to explore in detail the possible common genetic basic of smoking behavior and novelty seeking. For the scientist types wishing to explore papers which support the view that there are common genetic factors that may play at least a partial role in smoking and novelty seeking, and the possible role a reward deficiency syndrome in the causation of both smoking behavior and novelty seeking, please review the following four articles. Please also note that while the following articles support the hypothesis, there are some other research articles that don’t: the topic is complex, there are no definitely proven gene alleles accepted by all scientists as providing a common basis for smoking and novelty seeking, and research efforts on this topic are ongoing.
1. Bowirrat, A., Oscar-Berman, M., “Relationship between dopaminergic neurotransmission, alcoholism, and Reward Deficiency syndrome.” American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. Jan. 5, 2005;132(1):29–37.
2. Kremer, I., Bachner-Melman, R., Reshef, A., Broude, L., Nemanov, L., Gritsenko, I., Heresco-Levy, U., Elizur, Y., Ebstein, R. P., “Association of the serotonin transporter gene with smoking behavior.” American Journal of Psychiatry. May 2005;162(5):924–30.
3. Laucht, M., Becker, K., El-Faddagh, M., Hohm, E., Schmidt, M. H., “Association of the DRD4 exon III polymorphism with smoking in fifteen-year-olds: a mediating role for novelty seeking?” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. May 2005;44(5):477–84.
4. Sabol, S. Z., Nelson, M. L., Fisher, C., Gunzerath, L., Brody, C. L., Hu, S., Sirota, L. A., Marcus, S. E., Greenberg, B. D., Lucas, F. R. IV, Benjamin, J., Murphy D. L., Hamer, D. H., “A genetic association for cigarette smoking behavior.” Health Psychology. January 1999;18(1):7–13.
13 The hypotheses presented here actually suggests an interesting study: to compare the gene allele patterns from several hundred to 1,000 top Hollywood movie celebrities (depending on the number needed to have adequate study power) and compare them to the frequency of gene allele expression known for the general population, adjusting for race/stratification issues, and see if there is a statistically significant difference in relevant gene allele frequency, such as for DRD2 A1 allele, COMT met/val, etc.). However, getting a large number of celebrity actors to want to provide DNA samples is probably highly unlikely.
14 “Nick Nolte In DUI Arrest. Cops: His Car Was Swerving, Then He Failed Field Test.” Malibu, Calif., Sept. 12, 2002.http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2002/09/23/entertainment/main522969.shtml.
15 Sept. 13, 2002, 09:17 GMT 10:17 UK The headline read “Nolte could face drugs charges.”http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/2255217.stm.
21 Sept. 13, 2002, 09:17 GMT 10:17 UK The headline read “Nolte could face drugs charges.”http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/2255217.stm.
and Sept. 13, 2002, 09:17 GMT 10:17 UK The headline read “Nolte could face drugs charges” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/2255217.stm.
23 “Nolte ends three-year probation,” Jan. 5, 2006, 09:21 GMT http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/4583194.stm.
24 “Nolte's Addicted to Hiding from Reality” by Paul Fischer. “Nolte explains while puffing on a cigarette.”http://www.filmmonthly.com/Profiles/Articles/NNolte/NNolte.html. March 13, 2003.
27 The genetics underlying most personality patterns likely just predispose people to certain behavioral patterns. For the most part, people are not “doomed victims” to those genetic patterns. For example, people with strong family genetic histories for panic disorder and other anxiety disorders are routinely treated in psychology and psychiatric clinics with such methods as cognitive behavioral therapy, and often are able after sufficient learning to eliminate panic attacks and excess anxiety and engage calmly and confidently in activities that previously they couldn’t engage in, often without the need for medication.
Regarding legal issues, I personally believe that, for the very most part, that genetic patterns associated with certain personality patterns should not be allowed as a legal defense. Most humans have a strong genetic propensity to engage in sexual activity. However, we as a society agree that it is the individual’s responsibility to control those tendencies, not force sexual behavior on others, and that rape is a serious crime.
30 Letter from Sylvester Stallone to B. Kovoloff guaranteeing use of B&W tobacco products in five feature films. April 28, 1983: Access date: March 30, 2001. Bates No. 685083119. http://www.legacy.library.ucsf.edu/cgi/getdoc?tid=cuf33f00&fmt=pdf&ref=results The following letter from Associated Film Productions to Sylvester Stallone and Brown and Williamson confirms the product placement arrangement: http://www.legacy.library.ucsf.edu/cgi/getdoc?tid=duf33f00&fmt=pdf&ref=results. The following document confirms some of the means via which various payments were made to Sylvester Stallone: ttp://www.legacy.library.ucsf.edu/cgi/getdoc?tid=qgg45a00&fmt=pdf&ref=results. The following audit documents confirm Brown and Williamson's accounting of the payments to Sylvester Stallone, as well as payments for product placement in other movies. http://www.legacy.library.ucsf.edu/cgi/getdoc?tid=okj13f00&fmt=pdf&ref=results
See also: Mekemson, C., Glantz, S. A. “How the tobacco industry built its relationship with Hollywood.” Tobacco Control 2002;11(Suppl I):i81–i91.
33 Personal communication e-mail from Pamm Fair, Screen Actors Guild, Deputy National Executive Director, Policy & Strategic Planning.
37 Gladwell, M., The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. (Little Brown and Company, New York, NY: 2000 and 2002). p. 238–250.