Ending The Tobacco Holocaust Chapter 9 References and Footnotes:

Ending The Tobacco Holocaust: how Big Tobacco affects our health, pocketbook and political freedom, and what we can do about it.

Chapter 9: It's a Matter of Life and Death.

1 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/home_history.html.

2 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/index.htm.

3 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/10.htm.

4 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/welcome.html.

5 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/brain_effects.html#.

6 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/eyes_effects.html.

7 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/mouth_effects.html#.

8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud.

9 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/lungs_effects.html#.

10 Source: California Dept. of Public Health Services.

11 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/heart_effects.html.

12 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/stomach_effects.html#.

13 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/kidneys_effects.html#.

14 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/bladder_effects.html#.

15 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/pancreas_effects.html#.

16 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/sgranimation/pregnancy_effects.html#.

17 Gotti and Clementi Progress Neurobiology 74: 363-396 2004.

18 U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004.

19 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/1.htm.

20 Ventura, S. J., Mosher, W. D., Curtin, S. C., Abma, J. C., Henshaw, S., Trends in pregnancies and pregnancy rates by outcome: Estimates for the United States, 1976–96. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital and Health Statistics 2000;21(56).

21 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/2.htm.

22 Image source: http://www.who.int/tobacco/resources/publications/wntd/2000/en/. Accessed 3/22/06.

23 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/3.htm.

24 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/4.htm.

25 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/5.htm.

26 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/6.htm.

27 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/7.htm.

28 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/8.htm.

29 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/Factsheets/9.htm.

30 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/health_consequences/mortali.htm.

31 Ibid.

32 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost—United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1993;42(33):645–8.

33 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Mortality trends for selected smoking-related and breast cancer—United States, 1950–1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1993;42(44):857, 863–6.

34 American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures—1996. Atlanta (GA): American Cancer Society, 1996.

35 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost—United States, 1990. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1993;42(33):645–8.

36 Ibid.

37 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders. Washington (DC): U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development. EPA/600/6-90/006F. December 1992.

38 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/MCRC/countermarketing/pdf/cmc_chapter7.pdf.

39 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/factsheets/Tobacco_Related_Mortality_factsheet.htm.

40 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2001. Accessed: February 2004.

41 CDC. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs—United States, 1995–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002;51(14):300–303. ( PDF - 225k) Accessed: February 2004.

42 CDC. Health United States, 2003 With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. (PDF - 119k) Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Health Statistics; 2003. Accessed: February 2004.

43 CDC. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs—United States, 1995–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002;51(14):300–303. ( PDF - 225k) Accessed: February 2004.

44 Ibid.

45 Ibid.

46 McGinnis, J., Foege, W. H., Actual causes of death in United States. Journal of American Medical Association. 1993;270:2207–2212.

47 CDC. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs—United States, 1995–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002;51(14):300–303. ( PDF - 225k) Accessed: February 2004.

48 CDC. Perspectives in disease prevention and health promotion, smoking-attributable mortality and years of potential life lost—United States, 1984. (PDF - 309k) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1997;46:444–451. Accessed: February 2004.

49 CDC. Annual smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and economic costs—United States, 1995–1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2002;51(14):300–303. ( PDF - 225k) Accessed: February 2004.

50 Novotny, T. E., Giovino, G. A., Tobacco use. In: Brownson, R. C., Remington, P. L., Davis, J. R. (eds). Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association; 1998;117–148.

51 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2001. Accessed: February 2004.

52 Ibid.

53 Novotny, T. E., Giovino, G. A., Tobacco use. In: Brownson, R. C., Remington, P. L., Davis, J. R. (eds). Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control. Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association; 1998;117–148.

54 Ibid.

55 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2001. Accessed: February 2004.

56 Novotny, T. E., Giovino, G. A., Tobacco use. In: Brownson, R. C., Remington, P. L., Davis, J. R. (eds). Chronic Disease Epidemiology and Control. (American Public Health Association: Washington, D.C.) 1998;117–148.

57 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Reducing the Health Consequences of Smoking—25 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 1989. DHHS Pub. No. (CDC) 89-8411. Accessed: February 2004.

58 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Using Smokeless Tobacco: A Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General, 1986. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. NIH Pub. No. 86-2874. Accessed: February 2004.

59 (AIDS) HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 1998; (Alcohol) McGinnis, M. J., Foege, W. H. “Review: Actual Causes of Death in the United States.” JAMA 1993;270:2207–12; (Motor vehicle) National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, 1998; (Homicide, Suicide) NCHS, vital statistics, 1997; (Drug Induced) NCHS, vital statistics, 1996; (Smoking) SAMMEC, 1995.http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/health_consequences/andths.htm.

60 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/health_consequences/andths.htm.

61 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/PDF/wk/mm5425.pdf.

62 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/economics/mm5425_highlights.htm.

63 National Cancer Institute. Health Effects of Exposure to Environment Tobacco Smoke. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 10 (PDF - 71k). Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 1999. NIH Pub. No. 99-4645. Accessed: February 2004.

64 National Toxicology Program. 10th Report on Carcinogens. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, December 2002. Accessed: February 2004.

65 National Cancer Institute. Health Effects of Exposure to Environment Tobacco Smoke. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 10 (PDF - 71k). Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 1999. NIH Pub. No. 99-4645. Accessed: February 2004.

66 National Toxicology Program. 10th Report on Carcinogens. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, December 2002. Accessed: February 2004.

67 Pirkle, J. L., Flegal, K. M., Bernert, J. T., Brody, D. J., Etzel, R. A., Maurer, K. R., Exposure of the U.S. population to environmental tobacco smoke: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1991. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1996;275(16):1233–1240.

68 National Cancer Institute. Health Effects of Exposure to Environment Tobacco Smoke. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 10 (PDF - 71k). Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 1999. NIH Pub. No. 99-4645. Accessed: February 2004.

69 National Toxicology Program. 10th Report on Carcinogens. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, December 2002. Accessed: February 2004.

70 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 1992. Pub. No. EPA/600/6-90/006F. Accessed: February 2004.

71 National Toxicology Program. 10th Report on Carcinogens. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program, December 2002. Accessed: February 2004.

72 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; 1992. Pub. No. EPA/600/6-90/006F. Accessed: February 2004.

73 National Cancer Institute. Health Effects of Exposure to Environment Tobacco Smoke. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph No. 10 (PDF - 71k). Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 1999. NIH Pub. No. 99-4645. Accessed: February 2004.

74 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Women and Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; 2001. Accessed: February 2004.

75 U.S. Surgeon General. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2006/.

76 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking: Lung Cancer and Other Disorders. Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency;1992. Pub. No. EPA/600/6-90/006F. Accessed: February 2004.

77 Ibid.

78 U.S. Surgeon General. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2006/.

79 CDC’s Third National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals.

80 CDC. Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals: Tobacco Smoke. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for Environmental Health; 2003:80. NCEH Pub No. 03-0022. Accessed: February 2004.

81 CDC. State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults, and children’s and adolescents’ exposure to environmental tobacco smoke—United States, 1996 ( PDF – 266k). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 1997;46(44):1038–1043. Accessed: February 2004.

82 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Report on Carcinogens. 11th Edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2005, from http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html.

83 International Agency for Research on Cancer (2002). Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Retrieved Sept. 28, 2004, from http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/indexes/vol83index.html.

84 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Report on Carcinogens. 11th Edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2005, from http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html.

85 National Cancer Institute (February 2004). Cancer Progress Report 2003. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug. 25, 2004, from http://progressreport.cancer.gov/.

86 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://www.cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

87 Koh, H. K., Kannler, C., Geller, A. C., Cancer prevention: Preventing tobacco-related cancers. In: DeVita, V. T., Hellman, S., Rosenberg, S. A., editors. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA) 2001.

88 National Cancer Institute (February 2004). Cancer Progress Report 2003. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug.25, 2004, from http://www.progressreport.cancer.gov/.

89 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1992). Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking (Also Known as Exposure to Secondhand Smoke or Environmental Tobacco Smoke–ETS). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835.

90 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Report on Carcinogens. 11th Edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2005, from http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html.

91 International Agency for Research on Cancer (2002). Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Retrieved Sept. 28, 2004, from http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/indexes/vol83index.html.

92 Koh, H. K., Kannler, C., Geller, A. C., Cancer prevention: Preventing tobacco-related cancers. In: DeVita, V. T., Hellman, S., Rosenberg, S. A., editors. Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology. (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA) 2001.

93 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Report on Carcinogens. 11th Edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2005, from http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html.

94 International Agency for Research on Cancer (2002). Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Retrieved Sept. 28, 2004, from http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/indexes/vol83index.html.

95 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

96 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1992). Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking (Also Known as Exposure to Secondhand Smoke or Environmental Tobacco Smoke–ETS). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835.

97 U.S. Surgeon General (1986). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1986/.

98 National Cancer Institute (February 2004). Cancer Progress Report 2003. Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug. 25, 2004, from http://progressreport.cancer.gov/.

99 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2005). Report on Carcinogens. 11th Edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2005, from http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/toc11.html.

100 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

101 International Agency for Research on Cancer (2002). Tobacco Smoke and Involuntary Smoking. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Retrieved Sept. 28, 2004, from http://www-cie.iarc.fr/htdocs/indexes/vol83index.html.

102 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

103 Reynolds, P., Hurley, S., Goldberg, D. E., et al., “Active smoking, household passive smoking, and breast cancer: Evidence from the California teachers study.” Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 2004; 96(1):29–37.

104 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

105 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1992). Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking (Also Known as Exposure to Secondhand Smoke or Environmental Tobacco Smoke–ETS). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835.

106 U.S. Surgeon General (1986). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1986/.

107 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

108 Ibid.

109 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1992). Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking (Also Known as Exposure to Secondhand Smoke or Environmental Tobacco Smoke–ETS). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835.

110 U.S. Surgeon General (1986). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1986/.

111 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

112 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1992). Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking (Also Known as Exposure to Secondhand Smoke or Environmental Tobacco Smoke–ETS). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved August 30, 2004, from http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835.

113 U.S. Surgeon General (1986). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1986/.

114 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1992). Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking (Also Known as Exposure to Secondhand Smoke or Environmental Tobacco Smoke–ETS). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835.

115 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

116 Ibid.

117 Ibid.

118 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1992). Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking (Also Known as Exposure to Secondhand Smoke or Environmental Tobacco Smoke–ETS). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved Aug.30, 2004, from http://cfpub2.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=2835.

119 National Cancer Institute (1999). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 10: Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. Bethesda, MD: NCI. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://cancercontrol.cancer.gov/tcrb/monographs/10/index.html.

120 Ibid.

121 Ibid.

122 Ibid.

123 Ibid.

124 D9 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.; U.S. Government Printing Office, November 2000.

125 Ibid.

126 D7. U.S. Surgeon General (1986). The Health Consequences of Involuntary Smoking. Rockville, MD: Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved Aug. 30, 2004, from http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_1986/.

127 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.; U.S. Government Printing Office, November 2000.

128 Ibid.

129 http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/secondhandsmoke/factsheets/factsheet6.html and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2006/index.htm. Additional highlight sheets are also available at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/.

130 http://no-smoking.org/june06/06-20-06-1.html and Smoking and Health Review. May-June 2006, p. 2 and Dealing With Parents Who Smoke Near Their Kids. Wall Street Journal. June 14, 2006 and http://www.tobacco.org/news/225976.html.

131 http://no-smoking.org/june06/06-20-06-1.html and Smoking and Health Review. May-June 2006, p. 2. and Dealing with Parents Who Smoke Near Their Kids. Wall Street Journal. June 15, 2006.

132 http://www.epa.gov/iaq/ets/pledge/index.html.

133 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/research_data/adults_prev/prevali.htm.

134 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/posters/20mins.htm.

135 http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/sgr/sgr_2004/posters/benefits.htm.

136 Slide provide courtesy of Dr. Peto, and taken from Deaths From Smoking. Available at http://www.Deathsfromsmoking.net and Peto, R., Darby, S., Deo, H., Silcocks, P., Whitley, E., and Doll, R. “Cumulative risk at UK male 1990 rates.” British Medical Journal, 2000; 321: 323–9.

137 http://news.yahoo.com/s/hsn/20060218/hl_hsn/strokeriskremainshigherinexsmokers.

138 http://news.yahoo.com/s/hsn/20060218/hl_hsn/strokeriskremainshigherinexsmokers.

139 Jensen, G., Nyboe, J., Appleyard, M.., Schnohr, P., Risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in Copenhagen, II: Smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, obesity, oral contraception, diabetes, lipids, and blood pressure. European Heart Journal. March 1991;12(3):298–308.

140 Godtfredsen, N. S., Osler, M., Vestbo, J., Andersen, I., Prescott, E., Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction in Denmark 1976–1998: a pooled cohort study. J Epidemiol Community Health. June 2003;57(6):412–6.

141 Simmons, M. S., Connett, J. E., Nides, M. A., Lindgren, P. G., Kleerup, E. C., Murray, R. P., Bjornson, W. M., Tashkin, D. P., Smoking reduction and the rate of decline in FEV(1): results from the Lung Health Study. European Respiratory Journal. June 2005;25(6):1011–7. Dr. Tashkin sent me the following summary of the results in an e-mail: “To assess whether partial reduction in smoking short of complete cessation has any benefit in patients with COPD with respect to the subsequent rate of decline in lung function, data were analyzed from 1980 smokers who were participants in the Lung Health Study (an early intervention trial in mild to moderate COPD) but were unable to quit smoking completely at any time during the first year of the trial. Results indicated that only the small minority of smokers who were able to reduce their cigarette smoking by more than 85% below their baseline level (equivalent to three cigarettes per day or less) demonstrated any benefit as measured by a reduced rate of decline in FEV1 after one year. These findings may be related in part to compensatory changes in smoking technique (e.g., greater puff volume, larger number of puffs, etc.) when fewer cigarettes are smoked in an attempt to maintain desired levels of nicotine intake in the face of nicotine addiction. On the other hand, substantial levels of smoking reduction were associated with reductions in phlegm production but not with other chronic pulmonary symptoms.”

142 http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/index.htm. According to the Centers for Disease Control, for adult females one drink per day, but no more, can be healthy, and for adult males one to two drinks per day can be healthy. One standard drink = 12 ounces of regular beer or wine cooler, eight ounces of malt liquor, five ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of eighty-proof distilled spirits or liquor (i.e., gin, rum, vodka, whiskey). Consuming more than that number per day (or higher proof alcohol with those amounts) is associated in the long term with increased psychiatric and medical illness. Drinking alcohol has immediate effects that can increase the risk of many harmful health conditions. Excessive alcohol use, either in the form of heavy drinking (drinking more than two drinks per day on average for men or more than one drink per day on average for women), or binge drinking (drinking more than four drinks during a single occasion for men or more than three drinks during a single occasion for women), can lead to increased risk of health problems such as liver disease or unintentional injuries. According to national surveys, over half of the adult U.S. population drank alcohol in the past thirty days. Approximately, 5% of the total population drank heavily while 15% of the population binge drank. Our national surveys previously defined binge drinking as more than four drinks for both men and women. In 2001, there were approximately 75,000 deaths attributable to excessive alcohol use. In fact, excessive alcohol use is the third leading lifestyle-related cause of death for people in the United States each year. Alcohol use poses additional problems for underage drinkers.